Istio 101 (1.0) on GKE

Istio 1.0 is finally announced! In this post, I updated my previous Istio 101 post with Istio 1.0 specific instructions. Most of the instructions are the same but with a few minor differences about where things live (folder names/locations changed) and also most commands now default to kubectl instead of istioctl.

For those of you who haven’t read my Istio 101 post, I show how to install Istio 1.0 on Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE), deploy the sample BookInfo app and show some of the add-ons and traffic routing.

Create Kubernetes cluster

First, we need a Kubernetes cluster to install Istio. On GKE, this is a single command:

gcloud container clusters create hello-istio \
 --cluster-version=latest \
 --zone europe-west1-b \
 --num-nodes 4

I’m using 4 worker nodes. That’s the recommended number of nodes for BookInfo sample.

Once the cluster is created, we also need to create a clusterrolebinding for Istio to be able to manage the cluster:

kubectl create clusterrolebinding cluster-admin-binding \
 --clusterrole=cluster-admin \
 --user=$(gcloud config get-value core/account)

Download & Setup Istio

Now that we have a cluster, let’s download the latest Istio (1.0.0 as of today):

curl -L https://git.io/getLatestIstio | ISTIO_VERSION=1.0.0 sh -

Add Istio’s command line tool istioctl to your PATH. We’ll need it later:

export PATH="$PATH:./istio-1.0.0/bin"

Install Istio

It’s time to install Istio with mutual authentication between sidecars:

kubectl apply -f install/kubernetes/istio-demo-auth.yaml

Once it’s done, you can check that pods are running under istio-system namespace:

kubectl get pods -n istio-system

You’ll realize that in addition to Istio base components (eg. pilot, mixer, ingress, egress), a number of add-ons are also installed (eg. prometheus, servicegraph, grafana). This is different from the previous versions of Istio.

Enable sidecar injection

When we configure and run the services, Envoy sidecars can be automatically injected into each pod for the service. For that to work, we need to enable sidecar injection for the namespace (‘default’) that we will use for our microservices. We do that by applying a label:

kubectl label namespace default istio-injection=enabled

And verify that label was successfully applied:

kubectl get namespace -L istio-injection

Deploy BookInfo app

Let’s deploy the BookInfo sample app now:

kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/platform/kube/bookinfo.yaml

And make sure all the pods are running. Notice that there are 2 pods for each service (1 the actual service and 1 sidecar):

kubectl get pods

Deploy BookInfo Gateway

In Istio 1.0.0, you need to create a gateway for ingress traffic. Let’s go ahead and create a gateway for BookInfo app:

kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/networking/bookinfo-gateway.yaml

Use BookInfo app

We can finally take a look at the app. We need to find ingress gateway IP and port:

kubectl get svc istio-ingressgateway -n istio-system

To make it easier for us, let’s define a GATEWAY_URL variable:

export INGRESS_HOST=$(kubectl -n istio-system get service istio-ingressgateway -o jsonpath='{.status.loadBalancer.ingress[0].ip}')
export INGRESS_PORT=$(kubectl -n istio-system get service istio-ingressgateway -o jsonpath='{.spec.ports[?(@.name=="http2")].port}')
export GATEWAY_URL=$INGRESS_HOST:$INGRESS_PORT

Let’s see if the app is working. You should get 200 with curl:

curl -o /dev/null -s -w "%{http_code}\n" http://${GATEWAY_URL}/productpage

You can also open a browser and see the web frontend for product page. At this point, we got the app deployed and managed by a basic installation of Istio.

Next, we’ll take a look at some of the add-ons. Unlike previous versions, add-ons are automatically installed already. Let’s start sending some traffic first:

for i in {1..100}; do curl -o /dev/null -s -w "%{http_code}\n" http://${GATEWAY_URL}/productpage; done

Grafana dashboard

There’s Grafana for dashboarding. Let’s setup port forwarding first:

kubectl -n istio-system port-forward $(kubectl -n istio-system get pod -l app=grafana -o jsonpath='{.items[0].metadata.name}') 8080:3000

Navigate to http://localhost:8080 to see the dashboard:

Istio Dashboard in Grafana

Prometheus metrics

Next, let’s take a look at Prometheus for metrics. Set port forwarding:

kubectl -n istio-system port-forward $(kubectl -n istio-system get pod -l app=prometheus -o jsonpath='{.items[0].metadata.name}') 8083:9090

Navigate to http://localhost:8083/graph to see Prometheus:

Prometheus in Istio

ServiceGraph

For dependency visualization, we can take a look at ServiceGraph:

kubectl -n istio-system port-forward $(kubectl -n istio-system get pod -l app=servicegraph -o jsonpath='{.items[0].metadata.name}') 8082:8088

Navigate to http://localhost:8082/dotviz:

Screen Shot 2018-06-07 at 10.02.38 AM.png

Tracing

For HTTP tracing, there is Jaegar and Zipkin. Let’s take a look at Jaeger. Setup port forwarding as usual:

kubectl port-forward -n istio-system $(kubectl get pod -n istio-system -l app=jaeger -o jsonpath='{.items[0].metadata.name}') 8084:16686

Navigate to http://localhost:8084

Screen Shot 2018-06-07 at 10.05.11 AM

Traffic Management

Before you can use Istio to control the Bookinfo version routing, you need to define the available versions, called subsets, in destination rules. Run the following command to create default destination rules for the Bookinfo services:

kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/networking/destination-rule-all-mtls.yaml

You can then see the existing VirtualServices and DestinationRules like this:

kubectl get virtualservices -o yaml
kubectl get destinationrules -o yaml

When you go to the product page of BookInfo application and do a browser refresh a few times, you will see that the reviews section on the right keeps changing (the stars change color). This is because there are 3 different reviews microservices and everytime, a different microservice is invoked. Let’s pin all microservices to version1:

kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/networking/virtual-service-all-v1.yaml

This creates VirtualServices and DestinationRules needed to pin all microservices to version1. Now, if you back to the product page and do a browser refresh, nothing changes because reviews microservice is pinned to version1 now.

To pin a specific user (eg. Jason) to a specific version (v2), we can do the following:

kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/networking/virtual-service-reviews-test-v2.yaml

With this rule, if you login to the product page with username “Jason”, you should see the v2 version of reviews microservice.

To clean up all destination rules, run the following and now we’re back to the beginning with 3 different versions of the microservices:

kubectl delete -f samples/bookinfo/networking/virtual-service-all-v1.yaml

Cleanup

This wraps up all the basic functionality of Istio 1.0.0 that I wanted to show on GKE. To cleanup, let’s first delete the BookInfo app:

kubectl delete -f samples/bookinfo/networking/bookinfo-gateway.yaml
kubectl delete -f samples/bookinfo/platform/kube/bookinfo.yaml

Confirm that BookInfo app is gone:

kubectl get gateway
kubectl get virtualservices
kubectl get pods

Finally, cleanup Istio:

kubectl delete -f install/kubernetes/istio-demo.yaml

Confirm that Istio is gone:

kubectl get pods -n istio-system
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Istio 101 (0.8.0) on GKE

In one of my previous posts, I showed how to install Istio on minikube and deploy the sample BookInfo app. A new Istio version is out (0.8.0) with a lot of changes, especially changes on traffic management, which made my steps in the previous post a little obsolete.

In this post, I want to show how to install Istio 0.8.0 on Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE), deploy the sample BookInfo app and show some of the add-ons and traffic routing.

Create Kubernetes cluster

First, we need a Kubernetes cluster to install Istio. On GKE, this is a single command:

gcloud container clusters create hello-istio \
 --cluster-version=latest \
 --zone europe-west1-b \
 --num-nodes 4

I’m using 4 worker nodes. That’s the recommended number of nodes for BookInfo sample.

Once the cluster is created, we also need to create a clusterrolebinding for Istio to be able to manage the cluster:

kubectl create clusterrolebinding cluster-admin-binding \
 --clusterrole=cluster-admin \
 --user=$(gcloud config get-value core/account)

Download & Setup Istio

Now that we have a cluster, let’s download the latest Istio (0.8.0 as of today):

curl -L https://git.io/getLatestIstio | ISTIO_VERSION=0.8.0 sh -

Add Istio’s command line tool istioctl to your PATH. We’ll need it later:

export PATH="$PATH:./istio-0.8.0/bin"

Install Istio

It’s time to install Istio with mutual authentication between sidecars:

kubectl apply -f install/kubernetes/istio-demo-auth.yaml

Once it’s done, you can check that pods are running under istio-system namespace:

kubectl get pods -n istio-system

You’ll realize that in addition to Istio base components (eg. pilot, mixer, ingress, egress), a number of add-ons are also installed (eg. prometheus, servicegraph, grafana). This is different from the previous versions of Istio.

Enable sidecar injection

When we configure and run the services, Envoy sidecars can be automatically injected into each pod for the service. For that to work, we need to enable sidecar injection for the namespace (‘default’) that we will use for our microservices. We do that by applying a label:

kubectl label namespace default istio-injection=enabled

And verify that label was successfully applied:

kubectl get namespace -L istio-injection

Deploy BookInfo app

Let’s deploy the BookInfo sample app now:

kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/kube/bookinfo.yaml

And make sure all the pods are running. Notice that there are 2 pods for each service (1 the actual service and 1 sidecar):

kubectl get pods

Deploy BookInfo Gateway

In Istio 0.8.0, traffic management completely changed and one of those changes is that you need to create a gateway for ingress traffic. Let’s go ahead and create a gateway for BookInfo app:

istioctl create -f samples/bookinfo/routing/bookinfo-gateway.yaml

Use BookInfo app

We can finally take a look at the app. We need to find ingress gateway IP and port:

kubectl get svc istio-ingressgateway -n istio-system

To make it easier for us, let’s define a GATEWAY_URL variable:

export INGRESS_HOST=$(kubectl -n istio-system get service istio-ingressgateway -o jsonpath='{.status.loadBalancer.ingress[0].ip}')
export INGRESS_PORT=$(kubectl -n istio-system get service istio-ingressgateway -o jsonpath='{.spec.ports[?(@.name=="http")].port}')
export GATEWAY_URL=$INGRESS_HOST:$INGRESS_PORT

Let’s see if the app is working. You should get 200 with curl:

curl -o /dev/null -s -w "%{http_code}\n" http://${GATEWAY_URL}/productpage

You can also open a browser and see the web frontend for product page. At this point, we got the app deployed and managed by a basic installation of Istio.

Next, we’ll take a look at some of the add-ons. Unlike previous versions, add-ons are automatically installed already. Let’s start sending some traffic first:

for i in {1..100}; do curl -o /dev/null -s -w "%{http_code}\n" http://${GATEWAY_URL}/productpage; done

Grafana dashboard

There’s Grafana for dashboarding. Let’s setup port forwarding first:

kubectl -n istio-system port-forward $(kubectl -n istio-system get pod -l app=grafana -o jsonpath='{.items[0].metadata.name}') 8080:3000

Navigate to http://localhost:8080 to see the dashboard:

Istio Dashboard in Grafana

Prometheus metrics

Next, let’s take a look at Prometheus for metrics. Set port forwarding:

kubectl -n istio-system port-forward $(kubectl -n istio-system get pod -l app=prometheus -o jsonpath='{.items[0].metadata.name}') 8083:9090

Navigate to http://localhost:8083/graph to see Prometheus:

Prometheus in Istio

ServiceGraph

For dependency visualization, we can take a look at ServiceGraph:

kubectl -n istio-system port-forward $(kubectl -n istio-system get pod -l app=servicegraph -o jsonpath='{.items[0].metadata.name}') 8082:8088

Navigate to http://localhost:8082/dotviz:

Screen Shot 2018-06-07 at 10.02.38 AM.png

Tracing

For HTTP tracing, there is Jaegar and Zipkin. Let’s take a look at Jaeger. Setup port forwarding as usual:

kubectl port-forward -n istio-system $(kubectl get pod -n istio-system -l app=jaeger -o jsonpath='{.items[0].metadata.name}') 8084:16686

Navigate to http://localhost:8084

Screen Shot 2018-06-07 at 10.05.11 AM

Traffic Management

Traffic Management changed dramatically in 0.8.0. You can read more about it here but basically instead of routing rules, we now have VirtualServices and DestinationRules.

You can see the existing VirtualServices and DestinationRules like this:

istioctl get virtualservices -o yaml
istioctl get destinationrules -o yaml

When you go to the product page of BookInfo application and do a browser refresh a few times, you will see that the reviews section on the right keeps changing (the stars change color). This is because there are 3 different reviews microservices and everytime, a different microservice is invoked. Let’s pin all microservices to version1:

istioctl create -f samples/bookinfo/routing/route-rule-all-v1-mtls.yaml

This creates VirtualServices and DestinationRules needed to pin all microservices to version1. Now, if you back to the product page and do a browser refresh, nothing changes because reviews microservice is pinned to version1 now.

To pin a specific user (eg. Jason) to a specific version (v2), we can do the following:

istioctl replace -f samples/bookinfo/routing/route-rule-reviews-test-v2.yaml

With this rule, if you login to the product page with username “Jason”, you should see the v2 version of reviews microservice.

To clean up all destination rules, run the following and now we’re back to the beginning with 3 different versions of the microservices:

istioctl delete -f samples/bookinfo/routing/route-rule-all-v1.yaml

Cleanup

This wraps up all the basic functionality of Istio 0.8.0 that I wanted to show on GKE. To cleanup, let’s first delete the BookInfo app:

samples/bookinfo/kube/cleanup.sh

Confirm that BookInfo app is gone:

istioctl get gateway
istioctl get virtualservices
kubectl get pods

Finally, cleanup Istio:

kubectl delete -f install/kubernetes/istio-demo.yaml

Confirm that Istio is gone:

kubectl get pods -n istio-system

Codemotion in Amsterdam, Devoxx in London

After my trip in Istanbul, I visited my parents in Nicosia, Cyprus for a long weekend. Then, I stopped by in Amsterdam for Codemotion before coming back to London for Devoxx. 4 cities in 4 countries in 1 week was exhausting but also a lot of fun in many ways.

Codemotion Amsterdam

Amsterdam is almost a second home to me nowadays. There’s a great tech scene and a lot of tech events throughout the year, as a result, I end up visiting Amsterdam at least 2-3 times a year.

Codemotion is a European tech conference that happens in many locations. As you might remember, I spoke at Codemotion Rome earlier this year (trip report). This was my second time speaking at Codemotion Amsterdam. Last year, I spoke about gRPC and this year about Istio, both open source projects .

Codemotion Amsterdam is a mid-size conference, my guess is about 1000/1500 developers. I love the venue of Codemotion Amsterdam. It’s in an old factory kind of place, right next to the river. They did a great job with the venue decoration, lighting both last year and this year as well.

Talk & Questions

I did my usual Istio 101 talk to a group of about 100 developers. After my talk, I got the following questions:

  • How does Istio compare to Conduit? (apparently, Conduit is an Istio like project but I didn’t know much about it).
  • How can we have sticky sessions with Istio? (i.e. make sure certain users always go to the same pod).
  • Is it possible to have a message queue between services? This is a common pattern in microservices and a couple of people were wondering if this is possible in Istio.

Devoxx London

After Amsterdam, I arrived back to London for Devoxx UK. Even though I’m based in London, I don’t get to speak as much as I’d like in London, mainly due to my travels, so I was happy to be part of Devoxx UK.

Devoxx is another European conference that happens in places like Brussels, Krakow, Casablanca and London. It started as a Java conference but nowadays, it’s much more than just Java. I got to speak at Devoxx Brussels, Krakow and Casablanca in previous years but this was my first time speaking in Devoxx London.

As a side note, Devoxx Brussels is one of the best tech conferences I ever attended with great technical content, huge cinema like screens for previous and awesome attendees and speakers. In comparison, London is smaller but still a nice conference.

Talk & Questions

In Devoxx London, I did my Istio 101 talk again. It’s great to see so much interest in Istio from the community. The talk of the video is already online, so you can watch it here if you like:

After the talk, I got the following questions:

  • Kafka or some message queue between services: Again, people are curious about how to have an async architecture with message queues between services.
  • Zipkin add-on: Where does it save its data? If Istio is restarted, does the data persist?
  • Zipkin: Can we have it to look at our custom headers for tracing?
  • Pilot stability: What happens if Pilot does? Does the service mesh still work? Does Pilot’s state persist somewhere?

Deploying ASP.NET Core apps on Kubernetes/Container Engine

In my previous post, I talked about how to deploy a containerised ASP.NET Core app to App Engine (flex) on Google Cloud. App Engine (flex) is an easy way to run containers in production: Just send your container and let Google Cloud figure out how to run it at scale. It comes with some nice default features such as versioning, traffic splitting, dashboards and autoscaling. However, it doesn’t give you much control.

Sometimes, you need to create a cluster of containers and control how each container is deployed and scaled. That’s when Kubernetes come into play. Kubernetes is an open source container management platform that helps you to manage a cluster of containers and Container Engine is Kubernetes managed by Google Cloud.

In this cloud minute, I show how to deploy an ASP.NET Core app to Kubernetes running on Container Engine.

If you want to go through these steps yourself, we also have a codelab for you that you can access here.

Deploying ASP.NET Core apps on App Engine

I love how easy it is to deploy and run containerized ASP.NET Core apps on App Engine (flex). So much so that, I created a Cloud Minute recently to show you how, here it is.

It basically involves 3 steps:

  1. Create your ASP.NET Core app using dotnet command line tool inside Cloud Shell and publish your app to get a self-contained DLL.
  2. Containerize your app by creating a Dockerfile, relying on the official App Engine image and pointing to the self-contained DLL of your app.
  3. Create an app.yaml file for App Engine and use gcloud to deploy to App Engine.

That’s it! If you want to go through these steps yourself, we also have a codelab for you that you can access here.

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